History is the study of the past. This syllabus offers the opportunity to study world history from the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twenty-
Learners studying Cambridge IGCSE History are given the opportunity to:
• develop an interest in and enthusiasm for learning about and understanding the past
• explore historical concepts such as cause and consequence, change and continuity, and similarity and differenceIntroduction
• appreciate historical evidence and how to use it
• gain a greater understanding of international issues and inter-
• learn how to present clear, logical arguments.
1 Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair?
• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
• Could the treaties be justified at the time?
2 To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
• How successful was the League in the 1920s?
• How far did weaknesses in the League's organisation make failure inevitable?
• How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
• How successful was the League in the 1930s?
3 Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?
• What were the long-
• What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?
• How far was Hitler's foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
• Was the policy of appeasement justified?
• How important was the Nazi–Soviet Pact?
4 Who was to blame for the Cold War?
• Why did the USA–USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
• How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
• How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
• What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
• Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War: the USA or the USSR?
5 How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism?
This Key Question will be explored through case studies of the following:
• America and events in Korea, 1950–53
• America and events in Cuba, 1959–62
• American involvement in Vietnam.
6 How secure was the USSR's control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?
• Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how
did the USSR react to this opposition?
• How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
• Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
• What was the significance of 'Solidarity' in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern
• How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe.
7 Why did events in the Gulf matter, c.1970–2000?
• Why was Saddam Hussein able to come to power in Iraq?
• What was the nature of Saddam Hussein's rule in Iraq?
• Why was there a revolution in Iran in 1979?
• What were the causes and consequences of the Iran-
Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?
• How well did the Tsarist regime deal with the difficulties of ruling Russia up to 1914?
• How did the Tsar survive the 1905 Revolution?
• How far was the Tsar weakened by the First World War?
• Why was the revolution of March 1917 successful?
2 How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their
• How effectively did the Provisional Government rule Russia in 1917?
• Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power in November 1917?
• Why did the Bolsheviks win the Civil War?
• How far was the New Economic Policy a success?
3 How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?
• Why did Stalin, and not Trotsky, emerge as Lenin's successor?
• Why did Stalin launch the Purges?
• What methods did Stalin use to control the Soviet Union?
• How complete was Stalin's control over the Soviet Union by 1941?
4 What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?
• Why did Stalin introduce the Five-
• Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation?
• How successful were Stalin's economic changes?
• How were the Soviet people affected by these changes?